Saturday, March 14, 2020
Controversial Nature Of The Subject Of Sufism Religion Essay Essay Example Controversial Nature Of The Subject Of Sufism Religion Essay Essay Controversial Nature Of The Subject Of Sufism Religion Essay Essay 118, 119, 120 Fazlur Rahman, Islam ( London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1966 ) , 131, 148,149 Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Sufi Essays ( London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. , 1972 ) , 11-12, 15, 137, 138, 139, 147, 149 Tara Charan Rastogi, Islamic Mysticism Sufism ( New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Ltd. , 1982 ) , 1.. Titus Burckhardt, An Introduction to Sufism ( Wellingborough: The Aquarian Press, 1990 ) , 15, 16 In Arabic Inna liLlahi wa-inna ilayhi raji un. Martin Lings, What Is Sufism? ( London: George Allen A ; Unwin Ltd. , 1975 ) , 28,32 Haqiqa refers to the inner Truth or inner Reality that Sufis believe is at the bosom of Islamic disclosure. William Stoddart, Sufism The Mystical Doctrines and Methods of Islam ( New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1986 ) , 41, 66,67,83,74 Eisegesis, or the pattern of construing intending into a transition, bears a dramatic resemblance to Sufi methods of Quranic reading. Orthodox Muslims opposed to Sufism argue that Sufi readings are so eisegesis in other words the Sufis are imputing an inner significance which the poetries themselves do non incorporate. Fazlur Rahman in his work Islam provinces, the Sufis, in order to warrant their base, formulated ( Internet Explorer. verbally invented ) statements, sometimes rather notional and historically wholly fabricated, which they attributed to the Prophet. Rahman, 132,133,134.. J. Spencer Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam ( Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1971 ) , 246.. Rahman, 140. Other writers besides agree with Rahman s place on this point. A.J. Arberry argues that Abu Hamid al-Ghazali brought about Sufism s rapprochement and assimilation with Orthodox Sunni divinity and spiritual jurisprudence, through a figure of Hagiographas consolidated in the Ihya ulum al-din, which was written between 1099 and 1102 A.D. A.J. Arberry, Sufism An History of the Mystics of Islam ( London: George Allen A ; Unwin Ltd. , 1950 ) , 74. . Ibn al-Arabi ( 1165-1240 A.D. ) was one of the great Sufi Masterss of all clip and is referred to as The Greatest Shaikh ( al-Shaykh al-Akbar ) . Muslim sentiment has ever been split about Ibn al-Arabi: for some he is a great heretic ; for others, a great saint. Ian Richard Netton, A Popular Dictionary of Islam ( London: Curzon Press, 1992 ) , 110.. Elliot Miller, Sufis The Mystical Muslims, Forward ( Spring/Summer 1986 ) , 17-23.. Martin Lings, What is Sufism? ( London: George Allen A ; Unwin Ltd. , 1975 ) , 84, 85, 99.. Dara Shikoh ( besides spelled Shukuh ) was a Sufi of the Qadiriyyah order and a devout Muslim harmonizing to Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Shukuh believed the Upanishads to be the Hidden Books to which the Quran refers ( lvi. 77-80 ) and wrote that they contain the kernel of integrity and they are secrets which have to be kept concealed. Nasr states that it is adequate to read Shukuh s interlingual rendition of any of the Upanishads to recognize that he was non merely interpreting words into Iranian but besides thoughts into the model of Sufism. However, as usual Nasr follows up with a statement denying that this is an effort to syncretise, one time once more uncovering a blazing neglect for the grounds presented, non to advert a complete deficiency of logical idea. The members of one popular order ( the Mawlawiyya ) begun by Jalal ad-Din Rumi ( d. 1273 ) are the beginning of the Western term whirling dervishes John Alden Williams, ed. , Islam ( New York: George Brazillier, 1962 ) , 155-156.. Idries Shah, Reflections Fabrications in the Sufi Tradition ( Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1972 ) , 1. ; Miller, 20..
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
The implementation of a marketing plan - Case Study Example As such, the strategy will enable TUTTI MATTI beat some of her competitors who constantly threaten her business. One of the strategies that should be used is the provision of discounts or coupons with the purchase of movie tickets. Tutti Matti should also focus on providing discounts on particular days, such as Monday and Tuesday. Delivery services to people working around the area can also be of great benefit. The restaurant should also offer roof top event during summer time as well as participate at the Summerlicious. In addition, they should take advantage of free internet advertising platforms such as Facebook or the use of blogs. Further, the Toronto life magazine could be used as a great as a promotion tool. Tutti Matti should not charge corkage fee. Solomon should also actively participate in food competitions and other charity events so as to gain a reputation. SolomonÃ¢â¬â¢s main focus should be attracting new customers and increasing her customer base. She, therefore, ne eds to undertake a lot of promotional activities while providing the best pricing for her customers. Maintaining a strong customer base will play a big role in eliminating the effect of the economy downturn. A marketing plan provides a clarification of marketing elements of a business entity. It also maps out the objectives, the directions as well as the activities for a business and its work force. A marketing plan normally focuses on issues that are related to price, product, place and promotion.
Monday, February 10, 2020
Portfolio Analysis - Essay Example The indifference curve can be used to reflect investor attitude or risk by refloating an investorÃ¢â¬â¢s preference. The plot of many indifference curves shows the different options that an investor would take. However, from the indifference map, the best option is to take the option that is highest that any other indifference curve. b. Selection of a suitable portfolio Indifference curves are not just used to display the risk aversion factors of an investor; in fact, the indifference curve can be used to select a suitable portfolio in terms of risk and return (Yin and Zhou, 2004). As already stated, the indifference curve is a plot of the risk and return preferences of an investor, therefore, to select the most suitable portfolio, an investor can utilize the mean-variance theory. The mean-variance theory of portfolio selection is derived from the indifference curve, where the map of the different indifference curves for an investor is plotted together (Maharakkhaka, 2011). From th e plot of the indifference curves, the transitive preferences of an investor can be determined, which refers to the selection of the best preference curve as chosen by an investor. From an analysis of the transitive preferences, it is evident that the highest preference curve is the one that should be selected by the investor. From the indifference curve, the investor can determine the highest possible indifference curve, which, combined with the other indifference curves, gives the mean-variance portfolio or the most efficient portfolio in an investment. 2. Correlation and Co-variance a. Correlation and Co-variance The relationship between two variables can be measured or determined in different ways, but the commonest way is the determination of the correlation and covariance of the two variables. A number of variables are sometimes related in some way or another, either the occurrence of one variable affects the occurrence of the other variable, or the does not affect the working of the other variable. The covariance refers to the type of relationship that two variables have, meaning that it shows whether two variables have a positive or negative relationship. In this case, a positive relationship refers to the fact that one variable moves in the same direction as the other variable. Conversely, the correlation between two variables incorporates another dimension, the extent to which two variables are related. In addition to the covariance angle of determining whether variables are positively or inversely related, the correlation also shows the extent to which the variables are inversely or positively related. b. Covariance, Correlation, and Portfolio risk As already stated, the correlation between two variables is determined by the movement of one variable in relation to the movement of the other variable. In the investment market, diversification is a good practice, since it ensures that an investor does not lose an investment in case of a catastrophe or loss in market value. A positive correlation between assets means that one asset will move in the exact same way as another asset. In investment, stocks with low or negative correlation are used to reduce portfolio risk since when one asset falls; the other asset
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The thrill of reading Essay Education is an important asset to any oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and should be available to every one of all ages. Certain levels of education should be available to people of different levels and should be easily accessible. We need a basic form of education in our everyday lives. If we did not learn simple arithmetic such as how to count or if we did not learn how to read, we would suffer in the real word. If we bought something, people could rob us of our change simply because we cannot count. We would not be able to learn if we cannot read. We would rely on pictures to describe things for us and to convey the message to us. We would lose the thrill of reading. All these basic skills are taught in primary school and everyone should have access to primary school education. It is essential that everyone goes to school and if money is what is stopping them, then the government needs to make a plan to help correct that. Primary education should be made free as it allows people to develop their brains and gain a basic knowledge of the world. The government should provide institutions which learners can attend to be educated which they currently do and they are called government schools. These schools should be subsidised by the government for people who really canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford school fees. If people have enough money and choose to attend a private learning institution and have to pay school fees, they should do that at their own will. School should be made compulsory from age six when children are able to understand and grasp concepts more easily until about the age of sixteen where they will have a broad knowledge of the world and can decide whether they want to further their studies in a more specialised way. The quality of learning should be of a good quality at all levels of education. Secondary education expands on the knowledge that learners have received from primary school. It is still a broad range of knowledge but more important knowledge is given to learners especially in terms of career choice paths. It should be free or subsidised by the government for people who are really underprivileged or who really canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford school fees. School gives children a basic knowledge in problem solving skills that they may need in their everyday lives. Secondary education is compulsory up until grade 9 since grade 10 is when learners choose specific subjects which they feel may help them later on in life or in the career they are interested in. School should be compulsory till the end of matric. It would keep young people off the street and they would be doing something constructive such as improving their education. Nobody wants to hire a sixteen-year-old which is the age you are allowed to leave school at. Those sixteen-year-olds end up jobless, sitting at home or can become involved in gangs or drugs. Instead of wasting their time, they should rather attend school. They choose not to go to school because they are lazy and need that push to make them do something. They stand a much better chance of getting a job with a matric certificate. Finishing school up until matric level also allows you to explore new areas in your life and so that you can help find yourself, your talents and your interests.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
An Analysis of Margaret Atwood's Siren Song Throughout her many years as a poet, Margaret Atwood has dealt with a variety of subjects within the spectrum of relationship dynamics and the way men and women behave in romantic association. In much of her poetry, Atwood has addressed the topics of female subjugation in correlation with male domination, individual dynamics, and even female domination over males within the invisible boundaries of romantic relationships. With every poem written, Atwood's method for conveying the message of the poem has remained cryptic. She uses a variety of poetic devices - sometimes layered quite thickly - to communicate those themes dealing with human emotion. In the poem, Siren Song, Margaret Atwood employs such devices as imagery and tone to express and comment on the role of the dominating "siren" that some women choose to play in their relationships. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã "Siren Song" opens with the feel that the reader has just walked into a story being told by the speaker. It even seems to give the effect of literally walking a few moments late into a storytelling session. In this particular session, the speaker seems to be a woman portraying herself as a siren of ancient Greek lore. In literature, these mythological beings are most frequently described as creatures with the face of a woman and the feathered body of a bird, cursed to exist as such by the goddess Demeter. They were cursed for having stood by during the kidnapping of Demeter's daughter Persephone, when Hades whisked her away to the underworld. The sirens supposedly lived on a series of rocky islands and, with the irresistible charm of their songs, they lured mariners to their destruction on the rocks surrounding the islands. The ima... ... with them without denying herself the right to exist on her own terms. She does not fear her own nature, and she is not afraid to play the dominant role. Being a siren, though, means never truly getting close to anyone - victims do not last long - and so, on some level, her words must be double-edged. She may not be afraid and she may not regret the so-called deaths of these men, but she does seem to regret the death of something else. Perhaps this something else is her own heart, now seemingly incapable of 'normal' sentiment. This siren may not only be a portrait of a specific female role in romantic relationships, but she may also be a form of commentary on that role. The siren may also be seen as a depiction of the loneliness that stems from toying with the human heart. With her song, she provides a warning to the readers about the fate that follows such games.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
This investigation assesses American involvement in World War I before military intervention, and how this led to military intervention. In order to assess these causes, one must examine AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the war before combat, the events that launched AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s military intervention in the war, American sentiments about the war before military intervention, and Woodrow WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s actions before the war. Two sources used in the essay, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Great War: World War One and the American Experience by Robert H.Ã Ziegler and Woodrow WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s speech to congress on April 2nd, 1917 are evaluated for their origins, values, purposes and limitations. The investigation does not asses the pre-war situations of any countries but the United States, and does not asses American military involvement during the First World War Summary Of Evidence Prior to 1917, America was already deeply involved in the First World War, though they did not have troops fighting in the trenches overseas. First, American involvement in the war was purely as a producer and creditor to the Allied Powers. The war, while catastrophic for the countries involved in its atrophied trench battles, provided America with an astronomical boost to its economy, from 2 billion dollars in exported materials in 1913 to nearly 6 billion dollars in exports in 1916. This economic boom was mainly brought on by BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s dependency on American foodstuffs and manufactured goods.. The economic ties between America and Britain tightened with public subscription loans. By 1917, Britain had borrowed 2. 7 billion dollars from American creditors. Historian Paul Koistinen wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Without American supplies, Britain could not continue the war; without American financing of almost 10$ million a day Ã¢â¬ ¦ Britain would exhaust its reserves of gold and securities by March 1917. Its dependence was total. Cutting back procurement . . . would produce disaster in EnglandÃ¢â¬ Originally, America did nothing but reap the reward of Ã¢â¬Å"neutralityÃ¢â¬ . When Americas turned their eyes to the stage of war in Europe, they were truly terrified. One Chicago newspaper joked Ã¢â¬Å"A hearty vote of thanks to Columbus for having discovered AmericaÃ¢â¬ . This sentiment was echoed by many American citizens, who showed pride in President Woodrow WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to declare America a neutral state in the war. Americans thoughts on the war lied in their bloodlines, as a majority of Americans were descendants from either Allied or Central Powers nations. Most Americans, early in the war at least, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the war or why it was being fought, and were glad that America wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t involved. However, these robust Anti-Involvement sentiments began to fade after May 7 1915, the day of the Lusitania crisis. German U-Boats torpedoed and sunk a passenger liner in British waters, killing nearly 1,200 civilians, including 128 American citizens. The murder of these innocents set off the first widespread pro war feelings in Americans. This outrage was justified, but was also heightened by yellow journalism that demonized Germans as barbarians and deranged killers. President Woodrow Wilson, taking note of this event and the outrage it caused, warned the Germans that any further violation of American rights would result in Ã¢â¬Å"Strict AccountabilityÃ¢â¬ for these actions. This, as well as the bloody war dragging on in Europe, brought up the question of military preparedness in the United States. By 1916, pro-preparedness sentiment was widespread, as 135,000 supporters of expanding the military marched on New York CityÃ¢â¬â¢s 5th Avenue, for 12 hours. In Chicago, 130,000 telephone operators moved in the shape of an American flag, goose-stepping down State Street. In the election of 1916, Woodrow Wilson ran against Charles E. Hughes, who was backed by Theodore Roosevelt, former president and staunch Allied Powers supporter, as well as an advocate for military preparedness. Woodrow Wilson won the election by only about 600,000 popular votes. However, these sentiments were met with an equally strong anti-militarism force, saying that in a chaotic world, America must be a beacon and resist entrance into war, and resist building an enormous military. Strong anti-militaristic sentiments began to fade when British intelligence officers intercepted a telegram sent from Foreign Secretary of the German Empire Arthur Zimmermann to the German ambassador of Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt. This infamous proposal, known as the Zimmermann note, proposed that Mexico wage war against the United States. Throughout AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s neutrality in World War 1, President Wilson had acted as a mediator, but with tension building to a terminal level and with the Zimmermann note, Wilson was forced to ask congress to bolster AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s military forces on April 2nd 1917. Later in the same year, America sent its first military forces oversees Evaluation Of Sources Robert H Zieger: AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Great War: World War One and the American Experience Origins- (2000) Zieger is a respected labor historian Purpose- Provides an in-depth look at American involvement in the war. Value- The economic statistics and quotations from various primary and secondary sources allow the reader to evaluate the validity of the claims Zieger makes. Limitations- does not provide any new opinions or claims Woodrow Wilson, April 2nd 1917 to congress to persuade congress to bring the United States Origin- German hostile actions towards the United States Purpose- Persuade congress to declare war on Germany and the Central Powers Value- clearly outlined WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s reasonÃ¢â¬â¢s for entering war Limitations- doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t explain the underlying causes of military intervention or pressure from big business to declare war for entryÃ Analysis AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in World War One began with producing vital weapons and foodstuffs for the Allied Powers, as well as economically supporting the Allied nationÃ¢â¬â¢s governments. Throughout the war, the German Empire repeatedly acted belligerently towards the neutral United States, sinking passenger lines, killing Amer ican civilians. Tension with Germany also rose after the proposal to Mexico asking the Mexican army to wage war on the United States. These belligerent German acts, however, would not have held as much effect as they did if American political opinions had not been shifted by the German actions, the economic pressure of close ties to the Allied nations, or social pressure brought along by shifting political attitudes. These all contributed to tensions growing regarding American military involvement I World War One President Woodrow Wilson was a stalwart proponent of American neutrality in the First World War for the almost all of the war, but the American political climate at the time forced his hand.. He was able to win this election because most voters at the time had pro-neutrality sentiments. However, Wilson took into account his slim margin of victory, and the RepublicanÃ¢â¬â¢s yearning for a prepared military. These yearnings were brought on mainly by the Lusitania sinking. A major proponent for intervention, the previously mentioned Theodore Roosevelt, denounced these acts of the German Empire as acts of piracy. RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity made these statements extremely well heard. This shift in public opinion helped force President WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s hand. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in World War One before it entry in combat was extremely vital, producing millions of dollarsÃ¢â¬â¢ worth of material for Britain and France, as well as financing the war through small loans. This dependency was built by J. P Morgan, who traded nearly 3 billion dollarsÃ¢â¬â¢ worth of goods with the allied powers. By 1917, America had invested 2. 7 billion dollars in Britain alone. Historian Paul KoistinenÃ¢â¬â¢s quote regarding British dependency on American trade shows how deeply entrenched America was with the warÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs pre involvement. These statistics show that the allied powers were completely dependent on American economic support American corporations had an immense amount of wealth in the war, and if they Allied powers lost the war, all of their investments would be worth nothing, because the countries that had been responsible for repaying these debts would no longer exist. The war was taking a detrimental toll on the populations of the warring nations, and the war was almost completely atrophied. It was only a matter of time before one side lost, and it was essential to American business that it was the Allied Powers. Had the allied powers lost to the central powers, American financers would have lost 2. 7 billion dollars as a whole, 2. 7 billion dollars that were needed to give to American business, 2. 7 billion dollars that banks needed to stay in business. Throughout pre-involvement America, as early as the dawn of the war, so called Ã¢â¬Å"hyphenated AmericansÃ¢â¬ , had opinions on what side of the war to support, dependent on their country of origin. German-Americans, the largest ethnic group at the time , supported what they thought of as their motherland, Germany, therefore supported the Central Powers. The second largest ethnic group, Irish-Americans, saw Great Britain as an oppressor, therefore were also supporters of the central powers. However, most Americans at the time were still pro-neutrality. A Chicago newspaper, expressing thanks to Columbus, wrote an article on the blessing of the Atlantic Ocean. This was a popular sentiment at the time, and many Americans were proud of WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to be neutral. After the sinking of American ocean liner Lusitania the support of neutrality began to fade. Before the Lusitania disaster, however, 92 ships had been sunken by aggressive German action. None of these attacks had gained as much publicity, partially due to the fact that the previous sinkingÃ¢â¬â¢s hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been as destructive. But this was also due to the fact that the Lusitania sinking was grabbed onto by yellow journalists. Ã¢â¬Å"The blood of these murdered victims cries for vengeance. If that cry is unheard, the people of the United States will always bear upon them the stigma of the greatest humiliation ever put upon a nation. Writes a reporter from the Toronto Telegram. President Wilson demanded that German U-Boats stop sinking civilian liners, and if they continued to do so, they would be met with military retaliation. This didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop Germans from sinking boats, and WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to take action against them infuriated Americans. Observing the protests in American cities at the time, one can judge that huge masses of people were strongly in favo r of interventionism. Conclusion The process of the American military joining the Allied Powers seemed inevitable from the start of the war, but still took hostile action and over reaction to spark military involvement. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s pre-war economic ties to Europe and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s reliance on trade with these nations during the war made AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement with these nations too deep to let them lose the war, therefore forcing combat. Woodrow WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s strong stance on neutrality couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stand up to the enormous pressure he faced from the people of the United States.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Empress Myeongseong as a Hero The question as to what defines a true hero dates back to the beginning of humanity itself. Throughout mans existence on the earth, times of struggle and tribulation have often resulted in individuals or groups facing periods of trial, violence, or duress. In these situations, a select few individuals have risen to leadership to assist in times of hardship, establishing their place as a hero within the pages of human history. However, in viewing these heroes and in taking a deeper look into their own subjective histories, one can immediately see that these individuals come from different backgrounds, social standing, periods in time, geographic location only to name a few. What then, unifies these individuals under the umbrella term of hero? Professor James Castagnera notes that the worlds idea of a hero is, any person admired for courage nobility, or exploits, especially in war, or any person admired for qualities or achievements and regarded as an idea l or model (Castagnera 1). In this sense, it can be understood that to be a true hero, one must rise to a place of high regard amongst the individuals one interacts with. Regardless of cultural differences amongst the worlds heroes, this unifying factor is what continuously links these individuals, and has done so for ages. Such reverence for a hero can be seen in viewing the story of Empress Myeongseong of Korea, whose works and contributions to the Koren people have placed her amongst